J. Sánchez, and A. Loewe. A Review of Healthy and Fibrotic Myocardium Microstructure Modeling and Corresponding Intracardiac Electrograms. In Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 13, 2022
Computational simulations of cardiac electrophysiology provide detailed information on the depolarization phenomena at different spatial and temporal scales. With the development of new hardware and software, in silico experiments have gained more importance in cardiac electrophysiology research. For plane waves in healthy tissue, in vivo and in silico electrograms at the surface of the tissue demonstrate symmetric morphology and high peak-to-peak amplitude. Simulations provided insight into the factors that alter the morphology and amplitude of the electrograms. The situation is more complex in remodeled tissue with fibrotic infiltrations. Clinically, different changes including fractionation of the signal, extended duration and reduced amplitude have been described. In silico, numerous approaches have been proposed to represent the pathological changes on different spatial and functional scales. Different modeling approaches can reproduce distinct subsets of the clinically observed electrogram phenomena. This review provides an overview of how different modeling approaches to incorporate fibrotic and structural remodeling affect the electrogram and highlights open challenges to be addressed in future research.
A. Amsaleg, J. Sánchez, R. Mikut, and A. Loewe. Characterization of the pace-and-drive capacity of the human sinoatrial node: A 3D in silico study.. In Biophysical journal, vol. 121(22) , pp. 4247-4259, 2022
The sinoatrial node (SAN) is a complex structure that spontaneously depolarizes rhythmically ("pacing") and excites the surrounding non-automatic cardiac cells ("drive") to initiate each heart beat. However, the mechanisms by which the SAN cells can activate the large and hyperpolarized surrounding cardiac tissue are incompletely understood. Experimental studies demonstrated the presence of an insulating border that separates the SAN from the hyperpolarizing influence of the surrounding myocardium, except at a discrete number of sinoatrial exit pathways (SEPs). We propose a highly detailed 3D model of the human SAN, including 3D SEPs to study the requirements for successful electrical activation of the primary pacemaking structure of the human heart. A total of 788 simulations investigate the ability of the SAN to pace and drive with different heterogeneous characteristics of the nodal tissue (gradient and mosaic models) and myocyte orientation. A sigmoidal distribution of the tissue conductivity combined with a mosaic model of SAN and atrial cells in the SEP was able to drive the right atrium (RA) at varying rates induced by gradual If block. Additionally, we investigated the influence of the SEPs by varying their number, length, and width. SEPs created a transition zone of transmembrane voltage and ionic currents to enable successful pace and drive. Unsuccessful simulations showed a hyperpolarized transmembrane voltage (-66 mV), which blocked the L-type channels and attenuated the sodium-calcium exchanger. The fiber direction influenced the SEPs that preferentially activated the crista terminalis (CT). The location of the leading pacemaker site (LPS) shifted toward the SEP-free areas. LPSs were located closer to the SEP-free areas (3.46 ± 1.42 mm), where the hyperpolarizing influence of the CT was reduced, compared with a larger distance from the LPS to the areas where SEPs were located (7.17± 0.98 mm). This study identified the geometrical and electrophysiological aspects of the 3D SAN-SEP-CT structure required for successful pace and drive in silico.
A. Loewe, G. Luongo, and J. Sánchez. Machine Learning for Clinical Electrophysiology. In Innovative Treatment Strategies for Clinical Electrophysiology, Springer Nature Singapore, Singapore, pp. 93-109, 2022