Aims Atrial cardiomyopathy (ACM) is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation, arrhythmia recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and increased risk for stroke. At present, diagnosis of ACM is feasible by endocardial contact mapping of left atrial (LA) low-voltage substrate (LVS) or late gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, but their complexity limits a widespread use. The aim of this study was to assess non-invasive body surface electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) as a novel clinical tool for diagnosis of ACM compared with endocardial mapping. Methods and results Thirty-nine consecutive patients (66 ± 9 years, 85% male) presenting for their first PVI for persistent atrial fibrillation underwent ECGI in sinus rhythm using a 252-electrode-array mapping system. Subsequently, high-density LA voltage and biatrial activation maps (mean 2090 ± 488 sites) were acquired in sinus rhythm prior to PVI. Freedom from arrhythmia recurrence was assessed within 12 months follow-up. Increased duration of total atrial conduction time (TACT) in ECGI was associated with both increased atrial activation time and extent of LA-LVS in endocardial contact mapping (r = 0.77 and r = 0.66, P < 0.0001 respectively). Atrial cardiomyopathy was found in 23 (59%) patients. A TACT value of 148 ms identified ACM with 91.3% sensitivity and 93.7% specificity. Arrhythmia recurrence occurred in 15 (38%) patients during a follow-up of 389 ± 55 days. Freedom from arrhythmia was significantly higher in patients with a TACT <148 ms compared with patients with a TACT ≥148 ms (82.4% vs. 45.5%, P = 0.019). Conclusion Analysis of TACT in non-invasive ECGI allows diagnosis of patients with ACM, which is associated with a significantly increased risk for arrhythmia recurrence following PVI.
Clinical and computational studies highlighted the role of atrial anatomy for atrial fibrillation vulnerability. However, personalized computational models are often generated from electroanatomical maps, which might lack important anatomical structures like the appendages, or from imaging data which are potentially affected by segmentation uncertainty. A bi-atrial statistical shape model (SSM) covering relevant structures for electrophysiological simulations was shown to cover atrial shape variability. We hypothesized that it could, therefore, also be used to infer the shape of missing structures and deliver ready-to-use models to assess atrial fibrillation vulnerability in silico. We implemented a highly automatized pipeline to generate a personalized computational model by fitting the SSM to the clinically acquired geometries. We applied our framework to a geometry coming from an electroanatomical map and one derived from magnetic resonance images (MRI). Only landmarks belonging to the left atrium and no information from the right atrium were used in the fitting process. The left atrium surface-to-surface distance between electroanatomical map and a fitted instance of the SSM was 2.26+-1.95 mm. The distance between MRI segmentation and SSM was 2.07+-1.56 mm and 3.59+-2.84 mm in the left and right atrium, respectively. Our semi-automatic pipeline provides ready-to-use personalized computational models representing the original anatomy well by fitting a SSM. We were able to infer the shape of the right atrium even in the case of using information only from the left atrium.