BACKGROUND: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with indicator dilution may be clinically useful to measure relative lung perfusion, but there is limited information on the performance of this technique. METHODS: Thirteen pigs (50-66 kg) were anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated. Sequential changes in ventilation were made: (i) right-lung ventilation with left-lung collapse, (ii) two-lung ventilation with optimised PEEP, (iii) two-lung ventilation with zero PEEP after saline lung lavage, (iv) two-lung ventilation with maximum PEEP (20/25 cm HO to achieve peak airway pressure 45 cm HO), and (v) two-lung ventilation under unilateral pulmonary artery occlusion. Relative lung perfusion was assessed with EIT and central venous injection of saline 3%, 5%, and 10% (10 ml) during breath holds. Relative perfusion was determined by positron emission tomography (PET) using Gallium-labelled microspheres. EIT and PET were compared in eight regions of equal ventro-dorsal height (right, left, ventral, mid-ventral, mid-dorsal, and dorsal), and directional changes in regional perfusion were determined. RESULTS: Differences between methods were relatively small (95% of values differed by less than 8.7%, 8.9%, and 9.5% for saline 10%, 5%, and 3%, respectively). Compared with PET, EIT underestimated relative perfusion in dependent, and overestimated it in non-dependent, regions. EIT and PET detected the same direction of change in relative lung perfusion in 68.9-95.9% of measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The agreement between EIT and PET for measuring and tracking changes of relative lung perfusion was satisfactory for clinical purposes. Indicator-based EIT may prove useful for measuring pulmonary perfusion at bedside.
Conference Contributions (1)
M. Kircher, R. Hattiangdi, R. Menges, and O. Dössel. Influence of background lung tissue conductivity on the cardiosynchronous EIT signal components: a sensitivity study.. In Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference, vol. 2019, pp. 1547-1550, 2019
Electrical impedance tomography is an accepted and validated tool to analyze and support mechanical ventilation at the bedside. In the future it could furthermore clinically provide information of the pulmonary perfusion and other blood volume changes within the thorax by exploiting a cardiosynchronous EIT component. In the presented study, the spatial forward sensitivity against different background lung tissue distributions was analyzed. Spheres with a 10% change of the background conductivity were introduced in the lungs and in the heart. The cranio-caudal distribution of sensitivity had a bell shape and was similar between all simulated scenarios, varying only in magnitude. If the background tissue conductivity within the lungs was chosen to be the one of deflated tissue, the overall sensitivity was 46% smaller compared to the overall sensitivity against inflated lung tissue conductivity. Within the heart region, the sensitivity was increased for fully deflated lung tissue conductivity (23% relative to the sensitivity in the lungs) compared to a homogeneous distribution of inflated lung tissue conductivity (10% relative to the sensitivity in the lungs).