Congenital Long-QT Syndrome (LQTS) is a genetic dis- order affecting the repolarization of the heart. The most prevalent subtypes of LQTS are LQT1-3. In this work, we aim to evaluate the differences in the T-waves of simu- lated LQT1-3 in order to identify markers in the ECG that might help to classify patients solely based on ECG mea- surements. For LQT1, mutation S277L was used to char- acterize IKs and mutation S818L in IKr for LQT2. Volt- age clamp data were used to parametrize the ion channel equations of the ten Tusscher and Panfilov model of hu- man ventricular electrophysiology. LQT3 was integrated using an existing mutant INa model. The monodomain model was used in a transmural and apico-basal heteroge- neous model of the ventricles to calculate ventricular exci- tation propagation. The forward calculation on a torso model was performed to determine body surface ECGs. Compared to the physiological case with a QT-time of 375 ms, this interval was prolonged in all LQTS (LQT1 423 ms; LQT2 394 ms; LQT3 405 ms). The T-wave ampli- tude was changed (Einthoven lead II: LQT1 108%; LQT2 91%; LQT3 103%). Also, the width of the T-wave was en- larged (full width at half maximum: LQT1 111%; LQT2 125%; LQT3 109%). At the current state of modeling and data analysis, the three LQTS have not been distinguish- able solely by ECG data.
Numerical and patient-specific models of the human atrial anatomy and electrophysiology have a high potential to enhance our knowledge regarding pathological conditions and to increase the outcome of diagnosis and therapy. This chapter briefly describes the current state of the art in modeling of generalized human atria. Furthermore, the chapter demonstrates ways to personalize human atrial anatomy and electrophysiology based on a variety of measurement data from, e.g. late enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), patch clamp technique, intracardiac electrograms and body surface potential maps. Wherever patient data cannot be collected, patient-group specific behavior can be integrated. Some examples of the personalization process are described and the validation process is discussed together with future options for personalization, validation and application.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and the total number of AF patients is constantly increasing. The mechanisms leading to and sustaining AF are not completely understood yet. Heterogeneities in atrial electrophysiology seem to play an important role in this context. Although some heterogeneities have been used in in-silico human atrial modeling studies, they have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, the original electrophysiological (EP) models of Courtemanche et al., Nygren et al. and Maleckar et al. were adjusted to reproduce action potentials in 13 atrial regions. The parameter sets were validated against experimental action potential duration data and ECG data from patients with AV block. The use of the heterogeneous EP model led to a more synchronized repolarization sequence in a variety of 3D atrial anatomical models. Combination of the heterogeneous EP model with a model of persistent AF-remodeled electrophysiology led to a drastic change in cell electrophysiology. Simulated Ta-waves were significantly shorter under the remodeling. The heterogeneities in cell electrophysiology explain the previously observed Ta-wave effects. The results mark an important step toward the reliable simulation of the atrial repolarization sequence, give a deeper understanding of the mechanism of atrial repolarization and enable further clinical investigations.
Computational atrial models aid the understanding of pathological mechanisms and therapeutic measures in basic research. The use of biophysical models in a clinical environment requires methods to personalize the anatomy and electrophysiology (EP). Strategies for the automation of model generation and for evaluation are needed. In this manuscript, the current efforts of clinical atrial modeling in the euHeart project are summarized within the context of recent publications in this field. Model-based segmentation methods allow for the automatic generation of ready-to-simulate patient-specific anatomical models. EP models can be adapted to patient groups based on a-priori knowledge, and to the individual without significant further data acquisition. ECG and intracardiac data build the basis for excitation personalization. Information from late enhancement (LE) MRI can be used to evaluate the success of radio-frequency ablation (RFA) procedures and interactive virtual atria pave the way for RFA planning. Atrial modeling is currently in a transition from the sole use in basic research to future clinical applications. The proposed methods build the framework for model-based diagnosis and therapy evaluation and planning. Complex models allow to understand biophysical mechanisms and enable the development of simplified models for clinical applications.
Multiscale cardiac modeling has made great advances over the last decade. Highly detailed atrial models were created and used for the investigation of initiation and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation. The next challenge is the use of personalized atrial models in clinical practice. In this study, a framework of simple and robust tools is presented, which enables the generation and validation of patient-specific anatomical and electrophysiological atrial models. Introduction of rule-based atrial fiber orientation produced a realistic excitation sequence and a better correlation to the measured electrocardiograms. Personalization of the global conduction velocity lead to a precise match of the measured P-wave duration. The use of a virtual cohort of nine patient and volunteer models averaged out possible model-specific errors. Intra-atrial excitation conduction was personalized manually from left atrial local activation time maps. Inclusion of LE-MRI data into the simulations revealed possible gaps in ablation lesions. A fast marching level set approach to compute atrial depolarization was extended to incorporate anisotropy and conduction velocity heterogeneities and reproduced the monodomain solution. The presented chain of tools is an important step towards the use of atrial models for the patient-specific AF diagnosis and ablation therapy planing.
Inhibition of the atrial ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (I Kur) represents a promising therapeutic strategy in the therapy of atrial fibrillation. However, experimental and clinical data on the antiarrhythmic efficacy remain controversial. We tested the hypothesis that antiarrhythmic effects of I Kur inhibitors are dependent on kinetic properties of channel blockade. A mathematical description of I Kur blockade was introduced into Courtemanche-Ramirez-Nattel models of normal and remodeled atrial electrophysiology. Effects of five model compounds with different kinetic properties were analyzed. Although a reduction of dominant frequencies could be observed in two dimensional tissue simulations for all compounds, a reduction of spiral wave activity could be only be detected in two cases. We found that an increase of the percent area of refractory tissue due to a prolongation of the wavelength seems to be particularly important. By automatic tracking of spiral tip movement we find that increased refractoriness resulted in rotor extinction caused by an increased spiral-tip meandering. We show that antiarrhythmic effects of I Kur inhibitors are dependent on kinetic properties of blockade. We find that an increase of the percent area of refractory tissue is the underlying mechanism for an increased spiral-tip meandering, resulting in the extinction of re-entrant circuits.
Electrophysiological modeling of cardiac tissue is commonly based on functional and structural properties measured in experiments. Our knowledge of these properties is incomplete, in particular their remodeling in disease. Here, we introduce a methodology for quantitative tissue characterization based on fluorescent labeling, three-dimensional scanning confocal microscopy, image processing and reconstruction of tissue micro-structure at sub-micrometer resolution. We applied this methodology to normal rabbit ventricular tissue and tissue from hearts with myocardial infarction. Our analysis revealed that the volume fraction of fibroblasts increased from 4.830.42% (meanstandard deviation) in normal tissue up to 6.510.38% in myocardium from infarcted hearts. The myocyte volume fraction decreased from 76.209.89% in normal to 73.488.02% adjacent to the infarct. Numerical field calculations on three-dimensional reconstructions of the extracellular space yielded an extracellular longitudinal conductivity of 0.2640.082 S/m with an anisotropy ratio of 2.0951.11 in normal tissue. Adjacent to the infarct, the longitudinal conductivity increased up to 0.4000.051 S/m, but the anisotropy ratio decreased to 1.2950.09. Our study indicates an increased density of gap junctions proximal to both fibroblasts and myocytes in infarcted versus normal tissue, supporting previous hypotheses of electrical coupling of fibroblasts and myocytes in infarcted hearts. We suggest that the presented methodology provides an important contribution to modeling normal and diseased tissue. Applications of the methodology include the clinical characterization of disease-associated remodeling. 1.
Mathematical modeling of cardiac electrophysiology is an insightful method to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation. In past years, five models of human atrial electrophysiology with different formulations of ionic currents, and consequently diverging properties, have been published. The aim of this work is to give an overview of strengths and weaknesses of these models depending on the purpose and the general requirements of simulations. Therefore, these models were systematically benchmarked with respect to general mathematical properties and their ability to reproduce certain electrophysiological phenomena, such as action potential alternans. To assess the models ability to replicate modified properties of human myocytes and tissue in cardiac disease, electrical remodeling in chronic atrial fibrillation was chosen as test case. The healthy and remodeled model variants were compared with experimental results in single-cell, 1D and 2D tissue simulations to investigate action potential and restitution properties, as well as the initiation of reentrant circuits.
Conference Contributions (16)
G. Seemann. Simulating the effects of drugs and genetic defects on atrial electrophysiology. In 7th TRM Forum on Computer Simulation and Experimental Assessment of Cardiac Function, 2013
Heterogeeities of the ventricular electrophysiol- ogy play a major role in the generation of the T-wave mor- phology and amplitude. The exact way of the distribution of electrophysiological differences is not known. In this work, a numerical approach is presented in which the excitation propagation of different heterogeneity distributions of IKs are simulated and the multi-channel ECG is calculated. The ECG data are evaluated against measured ECGs. The most realistic configuration is a combination of transmural and apico-basal heterogeneity with 35% of Endo, 30% of M and 35% of Epi cells and an apico-basal gradient with a factor of 2. This specific setup has a correlation of around 90% and a root mean square error of around 0.0795.
Bidomain simulations of the heart need validated parameters to produce realistic data. Therefore, it is nec- essary to develop methods to estimate reliable values for these parameters. We developed an approach to deliver such values by designing an in-silico model of intracellular electrical conduction based on confocal microscopic data of rabbit ventricular tissue. High resolution image data were used to determine the anisotropy of electrical conduc- tivity in the myocardium, which is highly dependent on the specific tissue geometry. Gap junction protein connexin43 and extracellular space were labeled with fluorescent dyes of different spectra. The myocytes were segmented and the gap junction density in-between myocytes was extracted. Assuming conductivities for intracellular liquid and gap junction resistance, a numerical field calculation was per- formed for three principal directions in order to extract in- tracellular conductivity tensors. We calculated 9 tensors by varying the assumed conductivities by ±50%. We esti- mated the intracellular conductivities for the three princi- pal directions σi,x = 0.0653 S/m, σi,y = 0.0042 S/m and σi,z = 0.0033 S/m, respectively. The estimated conductiv- ity values were realistic regarding the electrical anisotropy but need to be improved to fit other experimental data.
Complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE) are a target for catheter ablation as they coincide with areas of slow conduction. In this study we simulated different vol- ume fractions of diffuse and patchy fibrosis up to 50 %. Catheter signals for different electrode spacings were cal- culated and characteristic features were compared to a clinical database of CFAE-signals. A linear slowing of global conduction velocities was found independent of the type of fibrosis. For patchy fibrosis, electrograms displayed fractionation, which was not seen for diffuse fibrosis of the same degree. In comparison to clinical data, simulated electrograms showed up to 10 zero crossings per electro- gram, which was also seen for clinical EGMs with medium fractionation (class 2 of 3). For both, clinical (84 %) and simulated (88 %) signals, a significant difference in ampli- tude is present between fractionated and non-fractionated signals.
Intracardiac electrograms are the key in under- standing, interpretation and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. However, electrogram morphologies are strongly variable due to catheter position, orientation and contact. Simulations of intracardiac electrograms can improve comprehension and quantification of influencing parameters and therefore reduce misinterpretations. In this study simulated intracardiac electro- grams are analyzed regarding tilt angles of the catheter relative to the propagation direction, electrode tissue distances as well as clinical filter settings. Catheter signals are computed on a realistic 3D catheter geometry using bidomain simulations of cardiac electrophysiology. Thereby high conductivities of the catheter electrodes are taken into account. For validation, simulated electrograms are compared with in vivo electrograms recorded during an EP-study with direct annotation of catheter orientation and tissue contact. Good agreement was reached regarding timing and signal width of simulated and measured electrograms. Correlation was 0.92±0.07 for bipolar, 0.92±0.05 for unipolar distal and 0.80 ± 0.12 for unipolar proximal electrograms for different catheter orientations and locations.
Abstract. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhyth- mia. Patient-specific computational modeling of the atria can provide a better understanding about mechanisms underlying the arrhythmia and will potentially be used for model-based ablation therapy evaluation and planning. Electrical excitation spreads from the left to the right atrium at discrete locations. The location of the muscular bridges cannot be determined from image data. In the present study, left atrial activation sources were manually identified in local activation time maps of 4 AF patients. This information was used to adjust rule-based placed intera- trial bridges in anatomical atrial models of the patients. Sinus rhythm simulations showed a better qualitative agreement to the measured left atrial activation patterns after the adjustment of the bridges. For one patient, the simulated body surface potential (BSP) pattern after the adjustment correlated better to measured BSP maps. The results show that the fusion of intracardiac electrical measurements of early left atrial activation can be used to refine patient atria models with information of the myocardial structure which cannot be imaged. In future, such personalized atrial models may be used to support EP interventions.
C. Lenk, F. M. Weber, M. Bauer, M. Einax, G. Seemann, and P. Maass. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation caused by interaction of pacemakerwaves and reduced excitability: Insights from the Bueno-Orovio model adapted to atria. In Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), pp. 1079-1082, 2013
As possible cause for atrial fibrillation (AF) we study the influence of a reduced excitability on the interaction of pacemaker waves in the Bueno-Orovio model with parameters adapted to atrial electrophysiology (aBO). One of the two pacemakers represents the sinus node and the other one a self-excitatory source in the left atrium. The pacemakers are spatially separated and their waves get in contact via a small bridge. In previous studies based on the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) model it was shown that three different types of irregular activation patterns can occur in this problem. In the aBO model adapted to physiological conditions only one type is observed because, different from the FHN model, a reduction of excitability due to high-frequency pacing does not occur. If the excitability is reduced in the aBO model, all types of irregularities are recovered and, in addition, a further type is found. Because transitions from regular to irregular behavior depend on the pacing frequency, our findings provide a possible explanation for the phenomenon of paroxysmal AF.
While human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) mutations N588K and K897T are associated with atrial fib- rillation (AF), the underlying arrhythmogenic mechanisms are understood only incompletely. In this work, an ap- proach integrating IKr measurement data from transgenic Xenopus oocytes into established computational models of cardiac electrophysiology is presented. Parameters are es- timated using a minimization formulation, which is handled by a hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO) and trust- region-reflective (TRR) algorithm. Cell models adapted to the mutation measurements show a significantly shorter ac- tion potential (AP) with less pronounced spike-and-dome morphology. Results of single cell simulations compare with myocytes in chronic AF.
Local activation time (LAT) maps help to understand the path of electrical excitation in cardiac arrhythmias. They can be generated automatically from intracardiac electrograms using various criteria provided by commercial electroanatomical mapping systems. This study compares existing criteria and a novel method based on the non-linear energy operator (NLEO) with respect to their precision and robustness.
Intracardiac electrograms are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of various cardiac arrhythmias. To gain reliable information about structural alterations of underlying tissue, it is necessary to interpret these electrograms correctly. Therefore it has to be understood how other parameters influence the signal. Realistic 3D geometries were created and simulated using the bidomain model. Based on these simulations, the influences of catheter orientation, tissue thickness and conduction velocity on the amplitudes of intracardiac electrograms were evaluated.
The segmentation of three-dimensional microscopic images of car- diac tissues provides important parameters for characterizing cardiac diseases and modeling of tissue function. Segmenting these images is, however, chal- lenging. Currently only time-consuming manual approaches have been devel- oped for this purpose. Here, we introduce an efficient approach for the semi-automatic segmentation (SAS) of cardiomyocytes and the extracellular space in image stacks obtained from confocal microscopy. The approach is based on a morphological watershed algorithm and iterative creation of wa- tershed seed points on a distance map. Results of SAS were consistent with re- sults from manual segmentation (Dice similarity coefficient: 90.8±2.6%). Cell volume was 4.6±6.5% higher in SAS cells, which mainly resulted from cell branches and membrane protrusions neglected by manual segmentation. We suggest that the novel approach constitutes an important tool for characterizing normal and diseased cardiac tissues. Furthermore, the approach is capable of providing crucial parameters for modeling of tissue structure and function.