M. Wilhelms, O. Dössel, and G. Seemann. In silico investigation of electrically silent acute cardiac ischemia in the human ventricles. In IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 58(10) , pp. 2961-2964, 2011
Acute cardiac ischemia, which is caused by the occlusion of a coronary artery, often leads to lethal ventricular arrhythmias or heart failure. The early diagnosis of this pathology is based on changes of the electrocardiogram (ECG), i.e. mainly shifts of the ST segment. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these shifts are not completely understood. Furthermore, clinical observations indicate that some acute ischemia cases can hardly be detected using standard 12-lead ECG only. Therefore, multi-scale computer simulations of cardiac ischemia using realistic models of human ventricles were carried out in this work. For this purpose, the transmembrane voltage distributions in the heart and the corresponding body surface potentials were computed with varying transmural extent of the ischemic region at different ischemia stages. Some of the simulated ischemia cases were electrically silent, i.e. they could hardly be identified in the 12-lead ECG.
Conference Contributions (2)
M. Wilhelms, O. Dössel, and G. Seemann. Comparing Simulated Electrocardiograms of Different Stages of Acute Cardiac Ischemia. In FIMH 2011, LNCS, vol. 6666, pp. 11-19, 2011
Diagnosis of acute cardiac ischemia depends on characteristic shifts of the ST segment. The transmural extent of the ischemic region and the temporal stage of ischemia have an impact on these changes. In this work, computer simulations of realistic ventricles with different transmural extent of the ischemic region were carried out. Furthermore, three stages within the first half hour after the occlusion of the distal left anterior descending coronary artery were regarded. The transmembrane voltage distributions and the corresponding body surface ECGs were calculated. It was observed how the electrophysiological properties worsen in the course of ischemia, so that almost no excitation was initiated in the central ischemic zone 30 minutes after the occlusion. In addition to these temporal effects, also the transmural extent of the ischemic region had an impact on the direction and intensity of the ST segment shift.
The early detection of myocardial ischemia is an essential lever for its successful treatment. We investigated an ECG monitoring system with 3 electrodes. Optimal electrode positions are determined using a cellular automaton. The spatially heterogeneous effects of myocardial ischemia were modeled by altering 4 electrophysiological parameters: action potential amplitude and duration, conduction velocity as well as resting membrane voltage. Both, transmural heterogeneity and the influence of the border zone were considered in the simulations on three patient models. The detection of myocardial ischemia is based on ST segment deviation from the physiological case. The signals used to find the best electrode positions comprise ischemic regions with different transmural extents in all 17 AHA segments. We show which ischemic ECGs can be detected given a realistic signal-to-noise ratio, false positive rate and maximum response time of the system.