Ventricular wall deformation is widely assumed to have an impact on the morphology of the T-wave that can be measured on the body surface. This study aims at quantifying these effects based on an in silico approach. To this end, we used a hybrid, static-dynamic approach: action potential propagation and repolarization were simulated on an electrophysiologically detailed but static 3-D heart model while the forward calculation accounted for ventricular deformation and the associated movement of the electrical sources (thus, it was dynamic). The displacement vectors that describe the ventricular motion were extracted from cinematographic and tagged MRI data using an elastic registration procedure. To probe to what extent the T-wave changes depend on the synchrony/asynchrony of mechanical relaxation and electrical repolarization, we created three electrophysiological configurations, each with a unique QT time: a setup with physiological QT time, a setup with pathologically short QT time (SQT), and pathologically long QT time (LQT), respectively. For all three electrophysiological configurations, a reduction of the T-wave amplitude was observed when the dynamic model was used for the forward calculations. The largest amplitude changes and the lowest correlation coefficients between the static and dynamic model were observed for the SQT setup, followed by the physiological QT and LQT setups.
Conference Contributions (2)
T. Fritz, O. Jarrousse, D. Keller, O. Dössel, and G. Seemann. In silico analysis of the impact of transmural myocardial infarction on cardiac mechanical dynamics for the 17 AHA segments. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Functional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart, vol. LNCS, 6666, pp. 241-249, 2011
The impact of transmural infarctions of the left ventricle on the cardiac mechanical dynamics is evaluated for all 17 AHA segments in a computer model. The simulation framework consists of two parts: an electrophysiological model and an elastomechanical model of the ventricles. The electrophysiological model is used to simulate the electrophysiological processes on cellular level, excitation propagation and the tension development. It is linked to the elastomechanical model, which is based on nonlinear finite element analysis for continuum mechanics. Altogether, 18 simulations of the contraction of the ventricles were performed, 17 with an infarction in the respective AHA segment and one simulation for the control case. For each simulation, the mechanical dynamics as well as the wall thickening of the infarct region were analyzed and compared to the corresponding region of the control case. The simulation revealed details of the impact of the myocardial infarction on wall thickening as well as on the velocity of the infarct region for most of the AHA segments
T. Fritz, O. Dössel, and G. Seemann. Analyzing transmural myocardial infarction of the left ventricle using computer modeling. In 4th Cardiac Physiome Workshop, vol. Poster, 2011
Elastomechanical modeling of the heart can help to gain a deeper insight into the mechanical dynamics of the heart. Furthermore it can help to enhance diagnostic strategies and to investigate new therapeutic approaches. Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging allows to directly measure the velocity vector field of the myocardial motion over the cardiac cycle. Aim of this work was to analyze the impact of transmural myocardial infarction on the velocity vector field of the left ventricle in a numerical model of the heart. For this purpose a multi-scale electromechanical computer framework was used. It consisted of two parts: an electrophysiological model and an elastomechanical model. The electrophysiological model described the electrophysiological processes on cellular level, the excitation propagation as well as the tension development. It was was linked to an elastomechanical model which was based on nonlinear continuum mechanics using the finite element method. The computer framework was used to simulate the contraction of the heart with left ventricular transmural infarctions, differing in size, location and stiffness of the scar tissue. For each simulation, the velocity vector field of the infarct region was analyzed and compared to the corresponding region of the control case. The simulations revealed a direct impact of the myocardial infarction on the magnitude and orientation of the velocity vectors of the affected region.