Atrial arrhythmias, such as atrial flutter or fibrillation, are frequent indications for catheter ablation. Recorded intracardiac electrograms (EGMs) are, however, mostly evaluated subjectively by the physicians. In this paper, we present a method to quantitatively extract the wave direction and the local conduction velocity from one single beat in a circular mapping catheter signal. We simulated typical clinical EGMs to validate the method. We then showed that even with noise, the average directional error was below 10(°) and the average velocity error was below 5.4 cm/s. In a realistic atrial simulation, the method could clearly distinguish between stimuli from different pulmonary veins. We further analyzed eight clinical data segments from three patients in normal sinus rhythm and with stimulation. We obtained stable wave directions for each segment and conduction velocities between 70 and 115 cm/s. We conclude that the method allows for easy quantitative analysis of single macroscopic wavefronts in intracardiac EGMs, such as during atrial flutter or in typical clinical stimulation procedures after termination of atrial fibrillation. With corresponding simulated data, it can provide an interface to personalize electrophysiological (EP) models. Furthermore, it could be integrated into EP navigation systems to provide quantitative data of high diagnostic value to the physician
Catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF), especially persistent AF, is still challenging. The underlying mechanisms are not yet completely understood and are discussed very controversially. Automated detection and analysis of complex frac- tionated atrial electrograms is essential in supporting the electrophysiologists during ablation therapy. Signal analysis of atrial signals works better the less noise and unwanted signals superimpose the signal to be analysed. As for catheter ablation of persistent AF the atrial signals play the most important role, ventricular activity is unwanted to be seen. For catheter positions in close proximity to the ventricles, i.e. the coronary sinus catheter, those ventricular far fields are taint- ing the atrial signals. For this reason we present a method to cancel the ventricular far field from atrial electrograms. Atrial segments synchronized to the ventricular activity are extracted and the ventricular far field is cancelled by use of a PCA approach. Signal processing of the sole atrial electrogram leads to better results and therefore can better support the abla- tion therapy.
Catheter ablation of complex atrial arrhythmias is a frequently applied procedure, but its success rates are only moderate and highly dependent on the experience of the physician. Personalized atrial simulation models could assist the physician in treatment planning and thus increase success rates. In this work we created a personalized anatomical model for a specific patient from CT image data. Left atrial conduction velocity and local wave directions were determined from intracardiac electrogram (EGM) recordings. We simulated normal sinus rhythm and the clinical pacing protocol using a Cellular Automaton. The incidence direction and conduction velocity were extracted from the simulated data and compared to the results of the clinical EGMs of the same patient. We then showed that the incidence angles differed by less than 15% and that the conduction velocity error was below 12 cm/s. This implies that the model has similar electric properties compared to the real atria. In conclusion, we have presented a workflow for model personalization and validation.
M. W. Keller, C. Schilling, A. Luik, C. Schmitt, and O. Dössel. Descriptors for a classification of complex fractionated atrial electrograms as a guidance for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. In Biomedizinische Technik / Biomedical Engineering, vol. 55(s1) , pp. 100-103, 2010
Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is a frequent and serious cardiac arrhythmia. A successful method to treat AFib is catheter ab- lation. Areas with complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE) are ideal targets for catheter ablation. Concerning the ablation strategy and the search for CFAEs the physician is mainly dependent on his own judgment. For this reason ablation strategies are highly operator dependent. In this work a set of seven descriptors is presented which show promising results concerning a classification of measured atrial electrograms. The descriptors are evaluated on a database of 25 CFAE sig- nals. The results reveal a possible discrimination between CFAE classes which could be a valuable support for physicians curing AFib