T. Fritz, O. Jarrousse, O. Dössel, and G. Seemann. Analyzing the transmural electromechanical heterogeneity of the left ventricle in a computer model. In Biomedizinische Technik / Biomedical Engineering (Proceedings BMT2010), vol. 55(Suppl 1) , 2010
There is a large number of published studies analyzing the inhomogeneously distributed electrophysiological properties of the ventricles in a computer model. However only few of them deal with the impact on the hearts mechanics. In 2003 Cordeiro and colleagues  analyzed the influence of the transmural left ventricular electrophysiological heterogeneity on the myocardial mechanics. Therefore, they examined the unloaded cell shortening of sub-epicardial cells, sub-endocardial cells, and cells from the middle of the wall, isolated from canine left ventricle.In this work a heterogenous electromechanical model was used to reconstruct these experiments of Cordeiro et al. in the computer. A simulation framework, which is consisting of an electrophysiological cell model, a tension development model and an elastomechanical model was used to simulate the cell shortening. Two experiments with different heterogeneities had been conducted. The first experiment examined, how the heterogeneity of the membrane channels influences the cell shortening. In the second experiment the additional impact of the heterogeneity of the intracellular calcium handling was analyzed. The results of the simulations were compared qualitatively to the findings of Cordeiro et al.
O. Jarrousse, T. Fritz, and O. Dössel. Modeling breast tissue mechanics from Prone to supine positions with a modified mass-spring system. In Proceedings BMT 2010, 44. DGBMT Jahrestagung, 3-Länder-Tagung D-A-CH, Rostock, vol. 55(S1) , pp. 87-90, 2010
A volumetric mass-spring system, originally developed for myocardial mechanics modeling , is used to simulate the elasto-mechanical deformation of several breast datasets from prone to supine positions. Segmented MRI datasets of pa- tients in prone position, available from the online repository provided by Susan C. Hagness at the University of Wisconsin- Madison  were used in the biomechanical simulations. These models were considered to be consisting of two materi- als, fat and fibroconnective/glandular tissues. Each tissue is represented as a nearly incompressible Neo-Hookean elastic isotropic material. Each simulation was conducted in two steps: in the first step, the unloaded model is generated by apply- ing gravity forces to the original model pointing toward the body. The unloaded model is then used in the second step, by applying gravity forces. Eventually, the breast model in supine position is obtained.
Motivation: Anatomical models of the heart can be used to conduct multi-physics simulations. These simulations can aid basic and clinical research and are being translated into clinical practice nowadays.Problem statement: The human myocardium has very complex fiber structure, which has a strong impact on cardiac physiology. To understand and evaluate 3D fiber orientation in volumetric cardiac models, it is often necessary to project these onto printed pictures.Approach: Images of myocardial fibers using color-coded cylinders, color-coded streamlines and anaglyph methods are compared. Results: Streamlines provide a good distinction of myocardial bundles. Cylinders show the most accurate results. Color-coded representations reveal abrupt changes in fiber direction. Anaglyph visualizations give an illusion of depth in 2D prints and can display overlaying bundles. Conclusions: Streamlines are superior in imaging global fiber orientation, whereas cylinders give better results for local structures. Color-coding increases information where fiber structure is very complex, e.g. in the atria. Anaglyph images cause a loss in color information but help the viewer to understand the 3D object. Overall, it is necessary to choose the appropriate method of picturing fibers for specific tasks.