Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valuable diagnostic method for many cardiovascular diseases. To date, patients with pacemakers are contra-indicated for cardiac MRI exams due to several effects that can occur during the MRI procedure: a) heating of the lead-tip, and b) less hazardous sensing errors and device malfunctions. Almost all measurements on MRI pacemaker compatibility have been conducted on classic 1.5 or 3T cylindrical whole-body MRI systems. In contrast, this study focused on the use of a high field open MRI (HFO) system due to its advantageous properties of RF fields which are commonly made responsible for the induction of lead heating.
As of today, the use of MRI procedures on patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers is prohibited due to safety issues. The implants can interact with the RF fields of the MRI device. The most hazardous effect is heating at the tip of the lead, less dangerous are sensing errors and malfunctions of the devices, because they disappear completely after the procedure. The majority of the previous studies used classic cylindrical whole-body MRI systems. The influence of different alignments of the pacemaker/lead system and the RF fields were evaluated by comparing temperature changes occurring in a cylindrical device with the effects induced in a high field open MRI (HFO) system.
S. A. Seitz, and O. Dössel. Numerical modeling of current distribution in and near the tips of cardiac pacemaker electrodes during magnetic resonance imaging. In Proc. Computers in Cardiology, 2009
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a widely used means of imaging and becoming increasingly popular for cardiac applications as well. But for patients with im- planted pacemakers, the use of MRI is not allowed in Eu- rope and the United States due to potentially hazardous interactions of the RF pulses with the pacemaker-electrode system. Here heating at the tip of the electrode is regarded as the most important one.In this simulation study, the occurring current densities and E-fields should be determined by employing numerical field calculation. Computer models of metallic objects like straight wires, simplified pacemakers and a replication a commercial bipolar electrode were placed in a plexiglas box positioned inside a birdcage coil. The results con- firmed findings of previous in-vitro studies regarding the influence of size and position of the exposed objects and thereby proved the validity of the presented approach.
S. Seitz, and O. Dössel. Electromagnetic Fields near Implanted Cardiac Devices during Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In IFMBE Proceedings World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, vol. 25/2, 2009
S. Seitz, and O. Dössel. Influence of body worn wireless mobile devices on implanted cardiac pacemakers. In 4th European Congress for Medical and Biomedical Engineering, vol. 22, 2008
The number of implanted cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators is constantly increasing. At the same time, more and more of those patients use wireless mobile communication devices.Aim of this work was the development of a pacemaker-electrode model and its “implantation” into a detailed anatomical correct voxel model. Additionally generic body models were examined. It consists of several layers with varying thickness and conductivity/permittivity values corresponding to different tissue types. This approach was chosen to avoid numerical errors at tilted boundaries. The excitation sources were modeled as generic dipoles and as plane waves operating at the frequency range normally used by cellular phones and wireless networks (900 to 2450 MHz). The dipoles were designed to provide maximum radiation efficiency at the frequencies of interest. Finally numerical calculation of induced fields by external signal sources were conducted. The results were then evaluated regarding the compliance to the guidelines of ICNIRP and a draft by DIN/VDE.For the Visible Man model, the computed specific absorption rate (SAR) values were well below the thresholds both for single and multi-antenna setups and for all frequencies of interest if the power did not exceed the regulatory specifications. The same results were obtained for the electrical field values determined at commonly used implantation sites for pacemakers. For some tissue configurations in the generic model, higher SAR values than allowed by regulations could be observed.
S. Seitz, G. Seemann, and O. Dössel. Influence of tissue anisotropy on the distribution of defibrillation fields. In Proc. Computers in Cardiology, pp. 489-492, 2008
The development of new devices used for defibrillation and cardioversion is often supported by numerical simulations of the induced electric potentials and current distributions. The commonly used tools incorporate isotropic models of the tissue properties present in the human torso. A comparative study was conducted to characterize the influence of anisotropic compared to isotropic tissue modeling. Defibrillation shocks with amplitudes of 1000 V and 2000 V were simulated and a set of varying conductivity values and anisotropy ratios was examined. The inclusion of tissue anisotropy produced significantly smaller values for current density compared to isotropic calculations especially in the myocardial tissue.
S. Seitz, A. Khawaja, and O. Dössel. PCA-based method for clustering T-waves. In Gemeinsame Jahrestagung der Deutschen, der Österreichischen und der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Biomedizinische Technik, 2006
M. Fütterer, and S. Seitz. Influence of RF-excitation patterns during Magnetic Resonance Imaging on heating at the tip of pacemaker electrodes. In Biomedizinische Technik / Biomedical Engineering (Proceedings BMT2010), vol. 55(s1) , 2010
For patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is still contra-indicated. Coupling of RF-fields into metallic leads of pacemakers can induce currents, that warm up the tissue near the electrode. Estima- tions of this heating effect are commonly obtained either by experimental setups or numerical simulations with continous RF-excitation based on average SAR values. As during real MRI RF-fields are applied in pulsed sequences, high radiation powers occur for short timespans, followed by pauses that could act as cooling time. To determine deviations of thermal heating subject to pulsed and continous excitation, a series of numerical simulations with a saline filled phantom inside a birdcage coil was performed. All simulation parameters were set according to a real 1.5 T MRI system with 64 MHz. This study revealed that by modelling pulsed excitation patterns and a corresponding downscaled continous excitation, a good estimation of heating during real MRI sequences can be achieved. Using a fine mesh, peak temperature rise could be localized more precisely and showed to be highly concentrated.
M. Grafmüller, S. Seitz, and O. Dössel. Adaption of generic anatomic organ models on patient specific data sets. In IFMBE Proceedings World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, vol. 25(4) , pp. 884-887, 2009
Anatomical voxel models are used for example for dosimetric assessment and numerical field calculations. For best matching between models and patients properties an accurate model should be created by Magnetic Resonance Imaging or Computer Tomography images for every patient. Due to complexity, time and costs this is not always possible. In contrast 3D laser scanning is a fast and easy method to gain information about a patients body surface. In this work generic organ models are developed to fit into the laser scan envelope of any patient. One model set was processed as to fit to the volume reference values of the International Commission on Radiological Protections of six different ages. To accomplish a more realistic shape, orthogonal scaling factors are used to simulate growth in three different directions.
A magnetic resonance imaging system (300) acquires magnetic resonance data (358) from a subject (318) that may include an electrically conductive object (e.g. an implant or a medical device). The magnetic resonance imaging system includes a radio-frequency transmitter (314) for generating a radio-frequency transmit field for acquiring the magnetic resonance data using a radio-frequency antenna (310). The radio-frequency transmitter has multiple transmit channels. The radio-frequency antenna comprises multiple antenna elements (312) each adapted to connect to an antenna element. The amplitude and phase values of the RF transmit field of each of the transmit channels can be selected such that the magnetic field generated by the RF antenna is minimized at the location of the electrically conductive object, thereby reducing RF heating of the object.
S. Seitz. Magnetic resonance imaging on patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers. KIT Scientific Publishing. Dissertation. 2011
The aim of this work was to identify the patterns that can induce heating around implanted cardiac pacemakers during MRI and to develop strategies to counteract them. Two approaches were taken: computer simulations of the occurring electromagnetic field distributions and in-vitro experiments using phantoms in real MRI devices, both for conventional bore-hole and new open MRI systems. Using the open MRI, the observed heating could be reduced significantly.
Student Theses (2)
S. Seitz. Analyse der T-Welle des EKG mit Hilfe von Cluster-Verfahren. Institut für Biomedizinische Technik. Diplomarbeit. 2006
S. Fuhrhop, S. Seitz, and S. Lamparth. Konzeption und Entwicklung einer Smart-Clothes Plattform zur aktiven Körperklimatisierung. Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Institut für Technik der Informationsverarbeitung. . 2004