BACKGROUND: The absorption of irrigation fluid during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is determined primarily by hydrostatic pressure in the bladder and prostatic venous pressure. In comparison to spontaneously breathing patients, patients undergoing mechanical ventilation with positive pressure have a raised central venous pressure and a reduced venous return, both of which can influence intravascular absorption. The purpose of the prospective study was to compare the effects of general (GA) and spinal anaesthetic (SA) techniques on the perioperative absorption of irrigating fluid in patients undergoing TURP. METHODS: Forty patients undergoing TURP were randomised and assigned either to group GA or SA. Irrigating fluid absorption was traced by adding 1.5% (w/v) ethanol to the irrigating fluid. Perioperative blood ethanol concentration (BEC), haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, serum sodium concentration and central venous pressure (CVP) were measured at 10-min intervals during TURP and at 30-min intervals while patients were recovering. Absorption routes were indexed by the BEC and changes in serum sodium concentrations. Where the BEC was greater than 0.05 mg.mL-1, absorption of irrigating fluid was assumed. For assessing the volume of irrigating fluid absorbed, the maximum BEC, the absorption rate, the area under the BEC curve (AUC), and the volumes calculated according to the Hahn nomogram (Volin) for each patient were taken into consideration. RESULTS: There were 15 cases of irrigating fluid absorption in patients receiving GA (75%), and 11 in those receiving SA (55%). CVP was significantly lower in spontaneously breathing patients with SA as compared to those with GA (P < 0.05). In patients with irrigating fluid absorption the maximum BEC (P < 0.02), as well as the rate of irrigant fluid absorption (P < 0.01), were significantly higher amongst patients receiving SA. In this group, the calculated area under the curve and the absorbed fluid volumes determined with the nomogram were significantly increased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The absorption of irrigation fluid during the TURP is significantly more marked amongst spontaneously breathing patients with regional anaesthesia in comparison to patients undergoing general anaesthesia with positive pressure ventilation. The markedly lower central venous pressure before the start of irrigation should be considered as a possible cause of this effect.
H. Gehring, W. Nahm, J. Baerwald, E. Konecny, and P. Schmucker. Atem-Alkoholmeßgeräte mit elektrochemischem Sensor - Meßgenauigkeit bei Beatmung am Lungenmodell - Breath alcohol analyzers with electrochemical sensory--accuracy of measurements in lung model ventilation. In Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering, vol. 41(3) , pp. 54-9, 1996
Absorption of irrigating fluid by blood vessels during endoscopic urological surgery may result in cardiac insufficiency, impairment of electrolyte metabolism and neurological disorders. For detection and quantification of the volume absorbed, ethanol is added to the irrigating fluid. The resulting blood alcohol concentration can be obtained by measuring the alcohol concentration in the expired air. For artificially ventilated patients receiving a general anesthetic, electrochemical sensors that remain uneffected by volatile anaesthetics are used. In the present study, the measuring accuracy of three different alcohol analyzers using electrochemical sensors was tested against an infrared reference sensor during simulated ventilation in a lung model, and the optimal trigger time point for sampling determined. All three devices tested show the same degree of accuracy as the reference. For manual endexpiratory triggering devices with short sampling times are best suitable. Portable devices powered by rechargeable batteries and usable with both spontaneously breathing and ventilated patients are recommended for clinical application.
H. Gehring, W. Nahm, K. F. Klotz, A. Knipper, K. Zimmermann, J. Baerwald, and P. Schmucker. Messung der Atem-Alkoholkonzentration mit einem neuen elektronischen Sensor. Modelluntersuchung zur Querempfindlichkeit gegenüber volatile Anästhetika und klinische Anwendung - Measurement of expired alcohol concentrations with a new electrochemical sensor. A model investigation to determine interference with volatile anesthetics and clinical application. In Der Anaesthesist, vol. 45(2) , pp. 154-62, 1996
UNLABELLED: Absorption of irrigating fluid in transurethral prostatic resection (TURP) and percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (PNL) into veins or delayed absorption due to fluid extravasation may result in a TURP syndrome. The measurement of end-tidal breath alcohol concentration (et AC) as a monitor of absorption of irrigating fluid labelled with 2% ethanol is limited by the disturbance of infrared sensors by volatile anaesthetics and nitrous oxide (N2O) (Fig. 2). An electrochemical sensor is acceptable for this method. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of breath alcohol measurements using an electrochemical sensor device (Alcomed 3010, Envitec). The stability of the sensor in the presence of volatile anaesthetics was examined using a lung model. In a clinical investigation, the device was then applied to spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients inhaling volatile anaesthetics during endoscopic urological surgery. METHOD: A two-chamber lung model filled with water for performing noninvasive measurements at the mouth of a patient has already been introduced by Brunner et al. (Fig. 1). With the addition of different amounts of ethanol to the temperature-controlled water, a constant ethanol concentration is achievable in the air above the water that is dependent on adjustments of the ventilator. Increasing concentrations of volatile anaesthetics (isoflurane, enflurane, halothane, and sevoflurane) were added to the fresh gas flow (2 l O2/3 l N2O) and etACs were measured using the manually triggered self-absorbent electrochemical sensor. First, regression equations were established between breath alcohol concentrations and increased volatile anaesthetic concentrations. Regression equations were then established between end-tidal anaesthetic gas concentrations and vaporizer adjustments in order to rule out an influence of ethanol on the anaesthetic gas monitor Ultima V (Datex). In the clinical investigation, 53 intubated and ventilated patients (33 undergoing PNL, 20 undergoing TURP) and 48 patients breathing spontaneously (32 with inhalation anaesthesia, 16 with spinal anaesthesia) were investigated. The etAC was measured with the Alcomed 3010 and compared with gas-chromatographically registered blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). The study had previously been approved by the Ethical Committee of the Medical University of Luebeck. Patients with liver disease and a history of toxic abuse were excluded. Only one value per patient (maximum BAC) was included in the statistics in order to avoid a cluster effect. RESULTS: The lung model experiments demonstrated that the measurement of etAC with an electrochemical sensor is free of interference by volatile anaesthetics (Table 1). The slope of the regression between the measured alcohol concentration and increased concentrations of anaesthetics did not differ significantly from baseline values. The measurement of end-tidal anaesthetic concentrations was not significantly different from vaporizer adjustments in the presence of increased alcohol concentrations (Table 2). During the clinical investigation, a regression between etAC and BAC was determined for both groups. For the group of patients breathing spontaneously, the correlation coefficient was 0.961 and the regression equation revealed etAC = 0.5677*BAC-0.1303 (Fig. 5). However, in the group of ventilated patients a biphasic course was shown that was dependent on BAC (Fig. 6). At BAC < 0.4%, a similar correlation (r = 0.856) to the spontaneously breathing group could be seen (regression equation: etAC = 0.617*BAC-0.020). Above 0.4% BAC there was no acceptable correlation (r = 0.444, regression equation: etAC = 0.202*BAC+0.104). CONCLUSIONS: The tested electrochemical sensor does not interfere with volatile anaesthetics and N2O as demonstrated by a lung model. There is a good correlation between etAC and BAC measurements in patients breathing spontaneously with special regard to the slope of the regression (s = 0.57).