OBJECTIVE: Unipolar intracardiac electrograms (uEGMs) measured inside the atria during electro-anatomic mapping contain diagnostic information about cardiac excitation and tissue properties. The ventricular far field (VFF) caused by ventricular depolarization compromises these signals. Current signal processing techniques require several seconds of local uEGMs to remove the VFF component and thus prolong the clinical mapping procedure. We developed an approach to remove the VFF component using data obtained during initial anatomy acquisition. METHODS: We developed two models which can approximate the spatio-temporal distribution of the VFF component based on acquired EGM data: Polynomial fit, and dipole fit. Both were benchmarked based on simulated cardiac excitation in two models of the human heart and applied to clinical data. RESULTS: VFF data acquired in one atrium were used to estimate model parameters. Under realistic noise conditions, a dipole model approximated the VFF with a median deviation of 0.029mV, yielding a median VFF attenuation of 142. In a different setup, only VFF data acquired at distances of more than 5mm to the atrial endocardium were used to estimate the model parameters. The VFF component was then extrapolated for a layer of 5mm thickness lining the endocardial tissue. A median deviation of 0.082mV (median VFF attenuation of 49x) was achieved under realistic noise conditions. CONCLUSION: It is feasible to model the VFF component in a personalized way and effectively remove it from uEGMs. SIGNIFICANCE: Application of our novel, simple and computationally inexpensive methods allows immediate diagnostic assessment of uEGM data without prolonging data acquisition.
Conference Contributions (2)
L. A. Unger, A. Luik, A. Haas, and O. Dössel. Comparison of Morphology-Based and Delay-Based Measures for Reference Beat Classification during Atrial Tachycardia. In Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC), 2020
Beat acceptance and rejection during atrial tachycardia are crucial for the compilation of meaningful electroanatomical maps during an electrophysiological study. State of the art methods compare the delays in activation time between two or more electrograms recorded with electrodes of a spatially stable reference catheter. This work introduces morphology-based measures for beat selection in the context of mapping atrial tachycardia. Active segments were extracted from bipolar reference electrograms with the help of the non-linear energy operator. After prealignment by means of maximum cross-correlation, the correlation coefficient as well as the normalized 1-norm distance yielded a similarity measure for each pair of prealigned active segments. The morphology-based measures were then compared to the delay-based measure. In an exemplary patient with 5163 recorded beats, the delay-based measures were strongly dependent on the accuracy of the local activation times as well as on the selection of reference leads. The morphology-based measures emphasized changes in the target tachycardia which were not detectable by the delay-based method. The correlation and the distance measure showed similar behavior but stressed different aspects of morphological changes. Ventricular components in active segments caused minor changes in morphology which were also reflected in the morphology-based measures. The morphology-based measures introduced in this work enhanced beat selection in the exemplary patient. A follow-up study with a representative patient cohort needs to quantify the improvement across patients and translate the measure to clinical practice. A combination of activation delays and morphological similarity is strongly expected to exploit the advantages of both methods for beat selection.