Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a standard clinical procedure for treating many cardiac arrhythmias. In order to increase the success rate of this treatment, the evaluation of lesion development with the help of intracardiac electrogram (EGM) criteria has to be improved further. We are investigating in-vitro the electrophysiological characteristics of cardiac tissue by using fluorescence-optical and electrical techniques. In this project, it is intended to create ablation lesions under defined conditions in rat atria or ventricle and to determine the electrical activity in the myocardium surrounding these lesions less than 1 s after the ablation. Therefore, we developed a semi-automatic RFA procedure, which was integrated into an existing experimental setup. Firstly, a controllable protection circuit board was designed to galvanically isolate the sensitive amplifiers for measuring extracellular potentials during the ablation. Secondly, a real-time system was implemented to control and to autonomously monitor the RFA procedure. We verified each component as well as the different sequences of the RFA procedure. In conclusion, the expanded setup will be used in future in-vitro experiments to determine new EGM criteria to assess lesion formation during the RFA procedure.
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a widely used clinical treatment for many types of cardiac arrhythmias. However, nontransmural lesions and gaps between linear lesions often lead to recurrence of the arrhythmia. Intrac- ardiac electrograms (IEGMs) provide real-time informa- tion regarding the state of the cardiac tissue surrounding the catheter tip. Nevertheless, the formation and inter- pretation of IEGMs during the RFA procedure is complex and yet not fully understood. In this in-silico study, we propose a computational model for acute ablation lesions. Our model consists of a necrotic scar core and a border zone, describing irreversible and reversible temperature induced electrophysiological phenomena. These phenom- ena are modeled by varying the intra- and extracellular conductivity of the tissue as well as a regulating zone factor. The computational model is evaluated regarding its feasibility and validity. Therefore, this model was com- pared to an existing one and to clinical measurements of ve patients undergoing RFA. The results show that the model can indeed be used to recreate IEGMs. We computed IEGMs arising from complex ablation scars, such as scars with gaps or two overlapping ellipsoid scars. For orthogo- nal catheter orientation, the presence of a second necrotic core in the near- eld of a punctiform acute ablation lesion had minor impact on the resulting signal morphology. The presented model can serve as a base for further research on the formation and interpretation of IEGMs.