Y. Jiang, Y. Meng, D. Farina, and O. Dössel. Effect of respiration on the solutions of forward and inverse electrocardiographic problems - a simulation study. In Proc. Computers in Cardiology, pp. 17-20, 2009
The forward problem of electrocardiography aims at obtaining a better understanding of cardiac electrophysiological activities, by means of computer modeling and simulation. Whereas, the inverse electrocardiographic problem provides a direct insight of electrical sources into the heart without interventional procedures. Nowadays, the forward and inverse problems are mostly solved in static models, which do not take into account heart motion and respiration. Besides heart motion, neglecting respiration may also lead to remarkable uncertainties in both forward and inverse solutions. In the present work a dynamic lung model is developed. With this model the effect of respiration on the forward and inverse solutions is studied.
Anatomically realistic computational models provide a powerful platform for investigating mechanisms that underlie atrial rhythm disturbances. In recent years, novel techniques have been developed to construct structurally-detailed, image-based models of 3D atrial anatomy. However, computational models still do not contain full descriptions of the atrial intramural myofiber architecture throughout the entire atria. To address this, a semi-automatic rule-based method was developed for generating multi-layer myofiber orientations in the human atria. The rules for fiber generation are based on the careful anatomic studies of Ho, Anderson and co-workers using dissection, macrophotography and visual tracing of fiber tracts. Separately, a series of high color contrast images were obtained from sheep atria with a novel confocal surface microscopy method. Myofiber orientations in the normal sheep atria were estimated by eigen-analyis of the 3D image structure tensor. These data have been incorporated into an anatomical model that provides the quantitative representation of myofiber architecture in the atrial chambers. In this study, we attempted to compare the two myofiber generation approaches. We observed similar myo-bundle structure in the human and sheep atria, for example in Bachmann's bundle, atrial septum, pectinate muscles, superior vena cava and septo-pulmonary bundle. Our computational simulations also confirmed that the preferential propagation pathways of the activation sequence in both atrial models is qualitatively similar, largely due to the domination of the major muscle bundles.
Y. Meng. Auswirkungen der Modellierungsfehler auf die Lösung vom Vorwärts- und inversen Problem der Elektrokardiographie. Institut für Biomedizinische Technik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). Dissertation. 2009