A prerequisite for the further improvement in the quality of warming therapy is an accurate knowledge of the interactions between the microclimate in warming therapy devices and the thermal balance of the infant. For generating this knowledge, thermal manikins can be helpful. Suitable models capable of also simulating evaporative heat loss in preterm infants have, however, not been available to date. A thermal manikin representing an infant weighing 530 g and capable of simulating convective, radiative and also evaporative heat loss has now been developed. It comprises an outer shell made of porous, anatomically shaped clay, and is divided into six compartments each of which can be heated individually. Water-filled Gore-Tex bags located immediately beneath the shell are provided to simulate evaporation. In a clinical study, temperature profiles of 8 very small preterm infants were measured thermographically. Measurements in the manikin showed that highly comparable temperature profiles with only minor differences could be obtained. Total heat and water losses by the manikin were in good agreement with clinical values. Using the model described here it is possible to simulate the heat exchange of premature infants under extreme and accurately reproducible environmental conditions. This manikin may thus serve as a tool for comparative studies, for the development of warming therapy equipment, or for training purposes.
R. T. Frankenberger, O. Bussmann, W. Nahm, E. Konecny, and L. Gortner. Messung seitlicher Haupttemperaturprofile von Frühgeborenen in Inkubatoren mittels Thermograhpie - Measuring lateral skin temperature profile of premature infants in incubators with thermography. In Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering, vol. 43(6) , pp. 174-178, 1998
Thermography enables the measurement of patients skin temperature profiles without stress caused by direct contact of probes to the skin. In previous incubator studies, frontal recordings were made through a hole in the top wall of the incubator hood. Using this method it is not possible to record the lateral temperature gradient from the back to the abdomen of the infant (in supine position), which is due to very limited heat loss near the incubator mattress. In this study temperature recordings were made from a lateral position. For this purpose a new front door of the incubator (Draeger 8000) was designed, which replaced the standard front door during measurements. In a clinical study thermography was compared to temperature measurements by standard thermistors. The mean difference between thermography and thermistors was 0.16 degree C. These results verify the use of thermography for measuring skin temperature of preterm infants in incubators.
One way of determining pulmonary CO2 elimination during anaesthesia is the breath-by-breath method. With this technique, CO2 analysis is carried out using either the mainstream method (MSM), that is, directly in the expired air flow, or in samples of expired air. A disadvantage of MSM is the lack of sensor signal correction for changes in the composition of the gas mixture and barometric pressure. Sidestream Systems (SSM) measure respiratory gas flow and gas con- centration with adequate accuracy, and also correct the measured values for gas composition and ambient parameters. Disadvantages of breath-by-breath analysis are the SSM-system-rela- ted delay and distortion of the CO2 curves. In the present study, a computer-assisted comparati- ve analysis of CO, elimination measurement by the sidestream and mainstream methods was carried out using ctiff erent mixtures of gases in a lung model. Under the selected conditions simulated in the lung model, evaluation of CO2 elimination using SSM and MSM is possible with an error of between 0 and 10 % versus reference Systems.Measu- ring accuracy of the MSM System in particular is found to depend directly on the composition of the gas mixture. Using the method described here, the measuring error of an SSM System in terms of delay and response time can be compensated with adequate accuracy.
The present paper examined the question as to the extent to which the taking of gas samples for the purpose of measuring the breath alcohol concentration (BAC) in the expired air of patients on artificial respiration is influenced by temperature and humidity. For this purpose a lung model standardized at different alcohol concentrations was used, in which the temperature (T: 25, 30 and 35 degrees C) and the relative humidity (RH: 50, 75 and 95%) were varied.
OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a method for standardized calibration of pulse oximeters. METHODS: A novel pulse oximeter calibration technique capable of simulating the behavior of real patients is discussed. It is based on an artificial finger with a variable spectral-resolved light attenuator in conjunction with an extensive clinical database of time-resolved optical transmission spectra of patients fingers in the wavelength range 600-1000 nm. The arterial oxygen saturation of the patients at the time of recording was derived by analyzing a corresponding blood sample with a CO-oximeter. These spectra are used to compute the modulation of the light attenuator which is attached to the artificial finger. This calibration method was tested by arbitrarily playing back recorded spectra to pulse oximeters and comparing their display to the value they displayed when the spectra were recorded. RESULTS: We were able to demonstrate that the calibrator could generate physiological signals which are accepted by a pulse oximeter. We also present some experience of playing back recorded patient spectra. The mean difference between the original reading of the pulse oximeters and the display when attached to the calibrator is 1.2 saturation points (displayed oxygen saturation SpO2) with a standard deviation of 1.9 saturation points. CONCLUSIONS: The tests have shown the capabilities of a spectral light modulator for use as a possible calibration standard for pulse oximeters. If some improvements of the current prototype can be achieved we conclude from the experience with the device that this novel concept for the calibration of pulse oximeters is feasible and that it could become an important tool for assessing the performance of pulse oximeters.
Conference Contributions (1)
H. Frankenberger, and W. Nahm. Meßdatenerfassung in der Medizin-Entwicklung eines Neugeborenen-Intensiv-Meßplatzes. In Proc. MessComp (MC), vol. 9, pp. 348-351, 1995